The rule of the first four caliphs is called Rashidun Chaliphate. Do you know what in this period wonder me? The quickness of the spread of Islam. Before raise of Islam the Arabian tribes were scattered wild peoples who worshiped a variety of gods and objects. Some people claim that the worship of the Kaaba, the box on the main square in Mecca, which every Muslim must visit, originates in those early times, when the tribes on the Arabian Peninsula worshiped stones and trees. And in the beginning of 7th century the people living mainly in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula became suddenly organized, moving to a new step of development and creating a new state – the Caliphate. Just for several decades they conquered vast territories on three continents. At first glance it seems that everything ran smoothly, but if we look closely, we will see another picture.
The history of the Caliphate goes back to the death of Muhammad, who founded a new religion – Islam. And the early period of this state is called Rashidun Caliphate. Muslims believe that the period of the Rashidun Caliphate covers the rule of the first four caliphs, but it is not clear why they are “more righteous” than future ones. Immediately after the Prophet ‘s death the next Caliph, Abu Bakr, encounter some difficulties. Islam had not sit firmly in the minds of the local people and many began to look towards other active preachers. Almost every tribe had an own prophet, whom the Arabs, with the exception of Medina and Mecca, were ready to follow to. Apparently, if Muhammad had not appeared there, his place was targeted by many local rivals, and who knows how would look the Arab world, if the place of the prophet was taken by one of them. Abu Bakr had to suppress dissent and conquer apostates. After two years of internal struggle, he died and left the post of the Caliph to his protégé – Umar. This guy carried out a variety of economic and administrative reforms. He founded the treasury, the first courts and some sort of government. During his reign the Koran was completed and the Islamic calendar, started since the Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina, was introduced. Umar also had to contend with internal renegades, but he was able to significantly expanded the territory of the Caliphate. Probably because of the active military activity, he was killed by a Persian slave at the time of prayer.
The third caliph, Uthman, also died not by natural couses. During his twelve-year rule opposite movement against him increased, despite of military success in the campaigns aginst Persia. After a series of protests, that nearly escalated into a civil war, the opponents of the Caliph rushed into Uthman’s house and assassinated him when he was reading the Koran. Usman’s followers also decided to take revenge for their ruler and killed more than 4,000 suspects. The new caliph, Ali, had to fight with the protesters in a battle, which became known as the battle of the Camel. Soon Ali was killed by comrades were dissatisfied with the split of the Muslim community. But Muawiya, a relative of the previous Caliph Uthman who came to power, bequeathed the throne to his son, thus ending the period of the Rashidun Caliphate and founding the Umayyad Caliphate.