Brief History of Ethiopia

It’s time to discuss about history of Ethiopia. Generally we bypass history of African states, but this time we’ll change this tradition. We use information from this page, and you can visit the site to get information about the topic.

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This place is claimed to be cradle of human, thus men lived here since the Paleolithic. The early Ethiopians spread from this place everywhere. The neighboring Egyptians came to them and named this place Punt. Aksum kingdom, the first Ethiopian kingdom, was founded in the first century and was among the earliest states which accepted Christianity. Ethiopian Orthodox Church goes back to fourth century, about six centuries earlier that Northern Europe accepted this religion. In the end of eleventh century the queen of native Jews, who were expelled when converted Christians ordered them to abandon their country, took the state and held the country with her successor this territory for forty years.

This moment became the key one in the history of the kingdom. A military leader, who managed to expel once again invaders, founded new Ethiopian royal family. This guy’s name was Mara Takla. The moment is thought an establishment of the Empire of Ethiopia, which lasted until 1974. However the year when this coup happened is unknown. The new ruler moved the capital in Lalibela, which exhibits a few churches made of rock and a cross produced from a part of iron.

About hundred years later other military leader went out, and declared himself an offspring of Solomonic, Jewish king united state of Israel, and so he must be the king. The guy was a native Habesha. In honor of this people the country had received the name by which it was famous for centuries, Abyssinia. Solomonic line remained the ruling house in the country for lion’s share of the Ethiopian history,  more than 7 centuries, despite the fact that the country resisted the Arabian, Turkish and European invasion. So, from 1529 to 1543 the empire successfully wage war against the state of Adal, that managed to annex Ethiopia for a short time, the battle of Shimbra Kure even ended with death of the emperor. Later emperor Fasilides laid a capital of the country – Gondar, which preserved some beautiful buildings.

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Some centuries later Italy joined carve-up of Africa’s cake, commencing an important campaign in African history. The war started after Italy concluded a peace with Ethiopia, but every country treated it in their own way because of incorrect translation of “may” in the treaty as “must”. Italian Kingdom invaded Ethiopian empire, but the key battle ended with the Italian epic defeat, paving the way for the first triumph of an African country in a campaign against a Western country. The Mussolini, who wish renascence of the power of his country, arrived in rule, he started a new campaign against Ethiopia. This time, the Italian were successful, in part because of prohibited usage of chemical warfare. Haile Selassie I, the most famous ruler of Ethiopia ever, was managed to escape to England, while the Italian king occupied the post of Emperor of Abyssinia. In the Second World War, the British army chased Italian forces out and invited to rule Haile Selassie back, who would remain the Emperor for another thirty years. I should to mention that Rastafarian movement honor him as god and look at him like at Jesus Christ.
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In 30 years communism touched Black continent… Marxist junta, backed by USSR, dethroned the Emperor, and throw him in prison, where he soon died. This was the end of the monarchy and start of the long period of wars.

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The worst disasters in Roman military history

One of the most tragic page of the history of Roman Empire was the Battle of Edessa. Let’s start with introduction of main characters of the event. So..
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Roman Emperor Valerian was member of a noble Roman family and assumed his post during the Crisis of the Third Century. Civil wars were common in Roman Empire in that time and the soldiers proclaimed Valerian emperor after emperor Trebonianus Gallus was killed by his own troops. During his reign he followed the policy of persecution of Christians and even ordered the execution of bishop of Rome Pope Sixtus II.
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Shapur I was King of Kings of Iran and Aniran, or simply the King of Persia. Since his raise to power in 241 he began to centralize power in the Empire. Initially he shared the throne with his father, but after death of the latter be became the sole ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Shapur liked reliefs and inscription on rocks and left many of them. He called himself worshiper of Mazda. Mazda here is not a Japanese car, but the sole God of Zoroastrianism.
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Shapur I also was a quite bellicose and launched some attacks on Roman Empire. Some of them were successful. Thus he managed to conquest Antioch in 253. Valerian began to prepare for the reply, and combine Roman army including praetorians. In 206 he invaded Persia and met the forces of Shapur I near the city of Edessa. After initial troubles Valerian tried to negotiate with Shapur, but it seems that during Shapur negotiations the Roman Emperor was seized while Roman army was forced to surrender. The most Lactantius pessimistic sources said about unpleasant consequences. Persian Emperor kept Valerian in cruel conditions and was humiliated there. Shapur used him as a step to climb into his horse. It also said that Valerian was kept in a cage. After Valerian’s death Shapur ordered to skin him and stuffed with manure.

After the battle Shapur tried to capture Cilicia but was defeated by Roman army. One of generals who participated in this operation proclaimed his sons as Emperors.

Seleucus I Nicator in Pictures

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Roman artwork showing Seleucus I, read more on Historystack
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A coin depicting face Seleucus’ son Antiochus I

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Alexander’s Macedonian army with Seleucus in India

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Field of battle of Corupendium, where Seleucus defeated king of Macedonia Lysimachus during wars of Deadochi
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Map of Seleucus Empire at its greatest extend

 

 

John Kay’s Flying Shuttle

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What is a flying shuttle? It is a very important invention in both textile industry and Industrial revolution all over the World. The inventor of this vital thing was an English engineer John Kay.

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This device allowed a single weaver to weave wider fabrics and greatly accelerated the process. Beneath is difference between  the new and old shuttles described by Encyclopedia Britannica:

In previous looms, the shuttle was thrown, or passed, through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord.

Images of Hussite Wars


Burning of Jan Hus, an event that triggered First Defenestration of Prague


First Defenestration of Prague, when citizen of Prague threw the judge, the burgomaster, and some thirteen council members out of the window of Town Hall


Battle of Sudoměř, the first battle of the Hussite wars, which was won by Czech general Jan Žižka


The Battle of Vítkov Hill, in which Jan Žižka defeated the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Emperor Sigismund


Victory of Utraquists over radical forces of Taborites in the battle of of Lipany, the last battle of the wars

Some rare photos linked with Belarusian People’s Republic


The first government of Belarusian Democratic Republic


Belarusian national white-red-white flag on a house of Secretariat of Belarusian Democratic Republic


Over the town by Marc Chagall, the painting created by famous painter during short period of BDR existence