The worst disasters in Roman military history

One of the most tragic page of the history of Roman Empire was the Battle of Edessa. Let’s start with introduction of main characters of the event. So..
Roman Emperor Valerian was member of a noble Roman family and assumed his post during the Crisis of the Third Century. Civil wars were common in Roman Empire in that time and the soldiers proclaimed Valerian emperor after emperor Trebonianus Gallus was killed by his own troops. During his reign he followed the policy of persecution of Christians and even ordered the execution of bishop of Rome Pope Sixtus II.
Shapur I was King of Kings of Iran and Aniran, or simply the King of Persia. Since his raise to power in 241 he began to centralize power in the Empire. Initially he shared the throne with his father, but after death of the latter be became the sole ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Shapur liked reliefs and inscription on rocks and left many of them. He called himself worshiper of Mazda. Mazda here is not a Japanese car, but the sole God of Zoroastrianism.
Shapur I also was a quite bellicose and launched some attacks on Roman Empire. Some of them were successful. Thus he managed to conquest Antioch in 253. Valerian began to prepare for the reply, and combine Roman army including praetorians. In 206 he invaded Persia and met the forces of Shapur I near the city of Edessa. After initial troubles Valerian tried to negotiate with Shapur, but it seems that during Shapur negotiations the Roman Emperor was seized while Roman army was forced to surrender. The most Lactantius pessimistic sources said about unpleasant consequences. Persian Emperor kept Valerian in cruel conditions and was humiliated there. Shapur used him as a step to climb into his horse. It also said that Valerian was kept in a cage. After Valerian’s death Shapur ordered to skin him and stuffed with manure.

After the battle Shapur tried to capture Cilicia but was defeated by Roman army. One of generals who participated in this operation proclaimed his sons as Emperors.


Seleucus I Nicator in Pictures

Roman artwork showing Seleucus I, read more on Historystack
A coin depicting face Seleucus’ son Antiochus I


Alexander’s Macedonian army with Seleucus in India

Field of battle of Corupendium, where Seleucus defeated king of Macedonia Lysimachus during wars of Deadochi
Map of Seleucus Empire at its greatest extend



John Kay’s Flying Shuttle


What is a flying shuttle? It is a very important invention in both textile industry and Industrial revolution all over the World. The inventor of this vital thing was an English engineer John Kay.


This device allowed a single weaver to weave wider fabrics and greatly accelerated the process. Beneath is difference between  the new and old shuttles described by Encyclopedia Britannica:

In previous looms, the shuttle was thrown, or passed, through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord.

Images of Hussite Wars

Burning of Jan Hus, an event that triggered First Defenestration of Prague

First Defenestration of Prague, when citizen of Prague threw the judge, the burgomaster, and some thirteen council members out of the window of Town Hall

Battle of Sudoměř, the first battle of the Hussite wars, which was won by Czech general Jan Žižka

The Battle of Vítkov Hill, in which Jan Žižka defeated the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Emperor Sigismund

Victory of Utraquists over radical forces of Taborites in the battle of of Lipany, the last battle of the wars

Some rare photos linked with Belarusian People’s Republic

The first government of Belarusian Democratic Republic

Belarusian national white-red-white flag on a house of Secretariat of Belarusian Democratic Republic

Over the town by Marc Chagall, the painting created by famous painter during short period of BDR existence