7 Best Historic Castles

Today I will talk about the most historic castles. The castle that played significant role in history of Europe. This article is based on this wonderful list and you can follow the link to see much more beautiful castles.

  1. Let’s start with my favorite castle. Personally I has never seen it in real life, but history of this castle and photos of it are amazing. It is Edinburgh Castle. The symbol of the city of Edinburgh and the stronghold nobody managed to conquer. It was founded in the 12th century by Scottish king David and was involved in many military engagements including Wars of Scottish Independence. Today it is very popular and more than 70% of visitors to Edinburgh visited the castle.34240381900_0cbcc74e59_c
  2. New nice object is gonna be Krak des Chevaliers. It is notable for being outside Europe, where majority of castle are located. Krak des Chevaliers was built just after the third Crusade by Knights Hospitaller as a major stronghold in Holy Land. They lost it in 1271 when Mamluk Sultan Baibars captured Krak des Chevaliers after a siege lasting 36 days. Unfortunately it is now a bit damaged during the Syrian civil war.33807784983_cb397a43dd_c
  3. Next castle is also very popular tourist attraction and sometimes is listed as one of symbols of France. It is located about one kilometer  off the country’s northwestern coast and is strategic fortifications since ancient times where the castle was founded by an Irish hermit who gathered a following from the local community. gained strategic significance again in 933 when William I Longsword annexed the Cotentin Peninsula from the weakened Duchy of Brittany. 33836924923_f4e1c694ec_c
  4. Cité de Carcassonne. One of the oldest castle in the list. Originally it was founded as an ancient Roman citadel. It played significant role in local fortifications for may centuries. After 1226, an additional line of fortifications was added outside of the Roman walls. The town was finally annexed to the kingdom of France in 1247 A.D. It provided a strong French frontier between France and the Crown of Aragon. The citadel was restored at the end of the 19th century.33846740703_d1717a7be5_c
  5. I thing everyone has listened to something about next castle at least once. Tower of London. Initially was built by William the Conqueror after conquest of the kingdom of England in 1066. The Tower was built to afraid English people and force to obey them and control River Thames. For many centuries the castle was symbol of King’s power and was used as prison for political opponents. Now it is one of the most popular tourist attraction in London.16349038888_f43848dfc3_c
  6. Do you know the World’s largest castle? It is located in Poland and is called Malbork Castle. It was built when this territory belonged to Teutonic order, which has a lot of power in Central and Eastern Europe. The order, which had many posts throughout Europe and Asia chose Malbork to be their capital. After the battle of Grunewald in 1410 Teutons lost their power and influence. At the conclusion of the war, the city of Malbork and castle became again a part of Poland and was rename Marienburg.34575368686_c0075d828e_c
  7. One more English castle, Windsor Castle. As well as Tower of London it was founded after conquest of England by the Normans. For many year Windsor Castle is residence of English and British kings. Many of them built or change a little something in the castle was formed throughout all eight centuries. William the Conqueror, who ordered the construction of the castle, built it wooden, but today it is one of the most beautiful castles in the World. On the picture you can see Round Tower, the oldest part of Windsor Castle.34486903391_90d8f2f128_c

 

 

Murderer of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Do you know who of the famous rulers was assassinated during an attempt? Caesar, Lincoln, Alexander II… This sequence can be continued by one more man, ruler of Saudi Arabia Faisal ibn Abdul-Aziz. But this time the speech is going to be not about the Faisal, but about his murderer, as you see in title of the post.

33729442203_6bd57ea160_cHe, by the way, was Faisal ibn Abdul-Aziz‘s nephew and his name was Faisal bin Musaid. Faisal came from a noble family of Saudis, and his brother, Abdurrahman ibn Musaid, was even an influential tycoon and president of Al-Hilal, an Arabian football club from Riyadh. One of his brothers was zealous Wahhabi and was assassinated during a protest against the introduction of a television channel. You know, Islam forbids images of living beings. Muslims do not depict either people or animals on the walls of their mosques, instead they usually decorate them with comprehensive ornate patterns. This is the reason for the comrades of our hero’s brother to organize a protest, during which Khalid was killed.

In the United Arab Emirates, citizens have the right to study at any university on the Earth. I do not know what about the people in Saudi Arabia, but the guys of the royal family are also excellent in this respect. The above-mentioned Abdurrahman studied at the Sorbonne, and Khalid managed to study at some colleges in the United States. And while studying, this young fellow was arrested for the distribution of LSD, for which, upon his return from the United States, the Saudi authorities revoked his passport.

Whether because of the passport, or for other reasons, the prince had planned something bad. On a spring day, the Faisal ibn Abdul-Aziz spent majlis. Mejlis is something like a ruler’s communicating with the people. That time the ruler communicated with the Kuwaiti delegation, to which prince joined. Soon the Abdul-Aziz saw his relative among the crowd, he tilted his head so that his prince would kiss his cheek, but those shot his uncle twice in the head. The guard of the ruler bare their swords (these fellows are armed with swords and automatic weapons), and grabbed the scoundrel.

d988d981d8a7d8a9_d8a7d984d985d984d983_d981d98ad8b5d984Initially Faisal was considered to be mad, but having thought about him, fellows decided to execute the prince. On the day of the verdict, the cars with loudspeakers urged the people to come and see the the prince’s execution. After the crowd assembled the prince was beheaded with a only stab of the gilded sword, and then his head was put up for a short time on a wooden stake for everyone to see. Then fellows took the body, the head on the stake, and took it all in the ambulance. Probably to provide first aid.

Konrad von Gochstaden. A man making autofalacio.

1180px-2014_04_19_koelner_domMr. Konrad von Gochstaden was a son of the canon of the cathedral in Cologne. Unfortunately, almost nothing is known about his childhood. We don’t even imagine in which year this guy was born, in 1198 or 1205. However, already in 1216 he was appointed a canon, and 10 years later the rector of the cathedral in Cologne. during the years of his ministry, he gained the fame of an uncompromising and severe fellow. In 1238 the archbishop of Cologne died, and the clergy of the cathedral elected Konrad. He immediately rolled up his sleeves and decided to take all this stuff into his own hands, which forced him to enter into a series of skirmishes with neighboring secular rulers and aristocracy, who tried the cleric to prevent reigning alone in Cologne. In the end, he succeeded, the craftsmen raised their heads, but the practically independent city moved under the authority of the church.

In 1239, another round of confrontation between secular power and Rome started. Initially, the bishop took Frederick’s position, but then, for unclear reasons, he moved to the camp of the Gregory IX. After the death of the former opponent of the pope, Frederick II, Mr. Gochstaden managed to appoint the Roman protege, Henry Raspe, on the position of the ruler of the Germans. And when the latter died six months later, the cleric placed on the this throne another Pope Gregory IX’s ruler – William of Holland. Among these clashes, archbishop was able to build something new. In 1248, von Gochstaden laid the new Cologne Cathedral, the construction of which lasted for several hundred years. This really impressive cathedral is one of the biggest in Europe, and the German government have today to spend a lot of money every year to maintain the cathedral. 15 years later by order of Mr. Gochstaden the cathedral in the neighboring city of Xanten also was laid.

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Henry Raspe

Soon the archbishop and the pope had a tiff. After the death of Archbishop of Mainz, the public demanded Konrad, who gained a serious weight, to be placed on this position, but the pope decided that he would not reside in two important German provinces simultaneously, and even deprived him the title of papal legate in Germany. Soon the friendship between the archbishop and ruler Wilhelm also deteriorated. The bishop did not give up, and awaited Wilhelm’s death and in the election of the next German ruler, he sold his vote for a considerable sum of money to Richard Cornwallis, the brother of the king of England Henry III. As a result, Richard became Emperor, and a couple of months later the bishop solemnly crowned him in Aachen.

 

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Statue of Konrad

In 1261 the archbishop died, and grateful citizens decorated the town hall with a sculpture of him. The sculpture of Konrad stands on a balloon depicting auto-fellatio. Auto-fellatio is an act when a fellow dandle his own penis with his mouth. Why? Nobody knows.

Brief History of Ethiopia

It’s time to discuss about history of Ethiopia. Generally we bypass history of African states, but this time we’ll change this tradition. We use information from this page, and you can visit the site to get information about the topic.

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This place is claimed to be cradle of human, thus men lived here since the Paleolithic. The early Ethiopians spread from this place everywhere. The neighboring Egyptians came to them and named this place Punt. Aksum kingdom, the first Ethiopian kingdom, was founded in the first century and was among the earliest states which accepted Christianity. Ethiopian Orthodox Church goes back to fourth century, about six centuries earlier that Northern Europe accepted this religion. In the end of eleventh century the queen of native Jews, who were expelled when converted Christians ordered them to abandon their country, took the state and held the country with her successor this territory for forty years.

This moment became the key one in the history of the kingdom. A military leader, who managed to expel once again invaders, founded new Ethiopian royal family. This guy’s name was Mara Takla. The moment is thought an establishment of the Empire of Ethiopia, which lasted until 1974. However the year when this coup happened is unknown. The new ruler moved the capital in Lalibela, which exhibits a few churches made of rock and a cross produced from a part of iron.

About hundred years later other military leader went out, and declared himself an offspring of Solomonic, Jewish king united state of Israel, and so he must be the king. The guy was a native Habesha. In honor of this people the country had received the name by which it was famous for centuries, Abyssinia. Solomonic line remained the ruling house in the country for lion’s share of the Ethiopian history,  more than 7 centuries, despite the fact that the country resisted the Arabian, Turkish and European invasion. So, from 1529 to 1543 the empire successfully wage war against the state of Adal, that managed to annex Ethiopia for a short time, the battle of Shimbra Kure even ended with death of the emperor. Later emperor Fasilides laid a capital of the country – Gondar, which preserved some beautiful buildings.

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Some centuries later Italy joined carve-up of Africa’s cake, commencing an important campaign in African history. The war started after Italy concluded a peace with Ethiopia, but every country treated it in their own way because of incorrect translation of “may” in the treaty as “must”. Italian Kingdom invaded Ethiopian empire, but the key battle ended with the Italian epic defeat, paving the way for the first triumph of an African country in a campaign against a Western country. The Mussolini, who wish renascence of the power of his country, arrived in rule, he started a new campaign against Ethiopia. This time, the Italian were successful, in part because of prohibited usage of chemical warfare. Haile Selassie I, the most famous ruler of Ethiopia ever, was managed to escape to England, while the Italian king occupied the post of Emperor of Abyssinia. In the Second World War, the British army chased Italian forces out and invited to rule Haile Selassie back, who would remain the Emperor for another thirty years. I should to mention that Rastafarian movement honor him as god and look at him like at Jesus Christ.
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In 30 years communism touched Black continent… Marxist junta, backed by USSR, dethroned the Emperor, and throw him in prison, where he soon died. This was the end of the monarchy and start of the long period of wars.

The worst disasters in Roman military history

One of the most tragic page of the history of Roman Empire was the Battle of Edessa. Let’s start with introduction of main characters of the event. So..
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Roman Emperor Valerian was member of a noble Roman family and assumed his post during the Crisis of the Third Century. Civil wars were common in Roman Empire in that time and the soldiers proclaimed Valerian emperor after emperor Trebonianus Gallus was killed by his own troops. During his reign he followed the policy of persecution of Christians and even ordered the execution of bishop of Rome Pope Sixtus II.
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Shapur I was King of Kings of Iran and Aniran, or simply the King of Persia. Since his raise to power in 241 he began to centralize power in the Empire. Initially he shared the throne with his father, but after death of the latter be became the sole ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Shapur liked reliefs and inscription on rocks and left many of them. He called himself worshiper of Mazda. Mazda here is not a Japanese car, but the sole God of Zoroastrianism.
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Shapur I also was a quite bellicose and launched some attacks on Roman Empire. Some of them were successful. Thus he managed to conquest Antioch in 253. Valerian began to prepare for the reply, and combine Roman army including praetorians. In 206 he invaded Persia and met the forces of Shapur I near the city of Edessa. After initial troubles Valerian tried to negotiate with Shapur, but it seems that during Shapur negotiations the Roman Emperor was seized while Roman army was forced to surrender. The most Lactantius pessimistic sources said about unpleasant consequences. Persian Emperor kept Valerian in cruel conditions and was humiliated there. Shapur used him as a step to climb into his horse. It also said that Valerian was kept in a cage. After Valerian’s death Shapur ordered to skin him and stuffed with manure.

After the battle Shapur tried to capture Cilicia but was defeated by Roman army. One of generals who participated in this operation proclaimed his sons as Emperors.

Seleucus I Nicator in Pictures

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Roman artwork showing Seleucus I, read more on Historystack
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A coin depicting face Seleucus’ son Antiochus I

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Alexander’s Macedonian army with Seleucus in India

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Field of battle of Corupendium, where Seleucus defeated king of Macedonia Lysimachus during wars of Deadochi
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Map of Seleucus Empire at its greatest extend